Bacteria cause bacterial infections and viruses cause viral infections. Antibiotic drugs usually kill bacteria, but they are not effective against viruses. Infections caused by bacteria include strep throat, tuberculosis and urinary tract infections. Diseases caused by viruses include chickenpox, AIDS and common colds. In some cases, it may be difficult to determine whether a bacterium or a virus is causing your symptoms. Many ailments such as pneumonia, meningitis and diarrhea can be caused by either type of microbe.
Types of Infection Viruses
Lyme disease, or borreliosis, is a potentially life-threatening condition that is transmitted to humans by blacklegged ticks.
The tick infects the person with the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi.
At first, a rash may appear. This can disappear without treatment, but in time, the person may develop problems with the joints, the heart, and the nervous system.
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne infectious disease in the United States (U.S.). The ticks pick up the bacteria when they bite mice or deer that are carrying it.
It was first reported in 1977 in a town called Old Lyme, CT.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) registered 25,435 confirmed cases of Lyme disease and 9,616 probable cases in 2015, an incidence of 8.9 cases in every 100,000 people.
The highest number was in Pennsylvania, with 7,351 confirmed cases. New England, the mid-Atlantic States, and the upper Midwest are most prone to ticks that can spread Lyme disease.
Types of Bacteria
Cold severity linked to bacteria living in your nose
In news with several layers of weird, researchers have determined that the mix of bacteria that live inside your nose — yes, there are organisms living inside your nose — correlates with the type and severity of cold symptoms you develop.
For example, people whose noses are rich in Staphylococcusbacteria had more severe nasal symptoms than cold sufferers who have less staph, new research shows. That’s despite their colds being caused by the exact same strain of virus.
The researchers found that the bacteria in volunteers’ noses fell into six different patterns of nasal microbiomes. The different patterns were associated with differences in symptom severity. The compositions also were found to correlate with viral load — the amount of cold virus inside the body.
Viruses influenced gene sharing between Neanderthals and humans
Human evolution used to be depicted as a straight line, gradually progressing from an ape-like ancestor to modern Homo sapiens. But thanks to next-generation sequencing — as well as the discovery of genetic material from extinct subspecies of early humans — findings in recent years have shown that it wasn’t quite so orderly.
The human family tree is full of twists and branches that helped shape what we are today. Now, a study published in the journal Cell is reporting new details about the role of viruses in shaping evolution, in particular viral interactions between modern humans and Neanderthals.
“It’s not a stretch to imagine that when modern humans met up with Neanderthals, they infected each other with pathogens that came from their respective environments,” says first author David Enard (@DavidEnard), an assistant professor in ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Arizona. “By interbreeding with each other, they also passed along genetic adaptations to cope with some of those pathogens.”
What causes Alzheimer’s disease? The answer could be right under our noses, says leading expert Professor Ruth Itzhaki. Her latest paper presents a lifetime of research evidence that the herpes virus responsible for cold sores can also cause Alzheimer’s — and new data which show antiviral drugs drastically reduce risk of senile dementia in patients with severe herpes infections. The review in Frontiers in Ageing Neuroscience raises the tantalizing prospect of a simple, effective preventive treatment for one of humanity’s costliest disorders.
Combination antibody therapy results in long-term viral suppression in HIV infection
A new generation of broadly neutralising antibodies provides a novel approach to treating HIV infection. The research group of Prof Florian Klein, Director of the Institute of Virology at the University Hospital Cologne and scientist at the German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), has collaborated with scientists at the Rockefeller University in New York and the University Hospital Cologne to investigate the impact of combining such antibodies in HIV-infected patients. Two articles on the results of this clinical trial have now been published in Nature and Nature Medicine.
Antiretroviral drugs are the critical component for effective management of HIV infection. Because of the rapid development of viral resistance against single agents, these drugs need to be administered in combination. While the currently approved drugs are highly active inhibitors of viral replication, they require daily and life-long dosing.
Compared to antiretroviral drugs, broadly neutralising antibodies have longer half-lives and can directly target the virus. In previous clinical trials conducted with participation of the University Hospital Cologne, two of these antibodies, called 3BNC117 and 10-1074, were administered individually. Both antibodies were well tolerated and resulted in significant reductions of the viral load. However, similar to treatment with classical antiretroviral drugs, the administration of a single antibody had only transient effects on the viral load and was associated with the development of viral resistance.